Tuesday, May 30, 2006

My Google Notes

I used to post all the interesting snippets, parts of articles and all those which I find in net to my google notes. I am making a couple of my sections public, which are related to technology...

The link is, GK's Notes

I wish to see a RSS feed in google notes.

Friday, May 19, 2006

My first appearance on Tech Lantern and 3 good .NET articles

This morning, GK, my old pal, send me an invitation for teaming up with him, in this tech blog. Since I have been leading and managing .NET projects, the VB flavor, for the last 2 years, I thought what the heck and instantly accepted his invitation. And this is the first post from me on Tech Lantern.

Since this is my first post, I want to be a bit lazy (it’s like the first day to school or work, no actual work and a lot of fooling around), so I am just pointing the reader to 3 good VB .NET articles written by a friend of mine.

1. How to Access System registry in VB .NET 2003
2. How to add assembly info in VB.NET 2005 programs
3. How to add Assembly Info to your VB .NET Programs.

From next post onwards I am looking forward to post some tech writing related to .NET technology.

Feeling much tired after all this :-) so winding up for now, bye.

Tuesday, May 16, 2006

HashTable in .Net

Recently one of my friends asked me how hash table resize itself. I tried to learn if from net, that ended up in this blog post. This is an accumulation of what I had found in various articles and discussions. Lot of smart people out there already discussed it. I have included reference to some useful sites to the end of the post.
Hash Table

Hash table is a data structure available in .net. It allows you to associate a key and a value.

Hash table usually puts the Key-Value pair in a bucket. The following figure gives you an idea about it,
Given a Key, hash table will use the hash code of the key to determine where to place the key. So that all the keys that are to be placed in a hash table requires a hash code. For lookup process also the hash code is used, which is a O(1) process. There are chances that the two keys may produce the same hash code and they will end up in the same bucket. Such a situation is called collision. So you have to make sure, that you are using a very good hash function for providing the hash codes.

There are many techniques available to avoid the collisions, the most popular are chaining and open addressing.


When a collision occurs in chained hash technique, the bucket will refer to a linked list. Each item will be attached to the list.

Open Addressing

Here only one Key-Value pair is placed in a bucket, when a collision occurs one of the following probing methods is used to determine where to place the item.

· Linear
· Quadratic
· Double hashing.

Another important element in open addressing is the load factor, which determines the proportions of the elements in the array are to be used. In .net the default load factor is 0.72 and in java it's 0.75.

Hash Table In .Net

In .net, the bucket contains three elements

1. Key.
2. Value.
3. Hash Code.

The Hash Code will contain the significant bit of the hash code if a collision happens.

By default, if we create an instance of the hash table. The default capacity is zero and load factor is 1.0. The valid range of load factor in .net is 0.1 to 1.0. If you specify the load factor as 1.0 it will be scaled down to 0.72, as they found that values greater than 0.72 seriously degraded the performance. On resize of hash table, .net considers the smallest prime number, which is larger than the double of the current size. For example, if we specify the size as 100 and a load factor of 1 then,

ActualloadFactor = 0.72 * 1 = 0.72
// This should not exceed the maximum integer size.
ActualSize = 100 / ActualLoadFactor = 100/0.72 = 139
//Which will returns the next smallest prime number which is
// larger than (2 * //ActualSize)
ActualSize = GetPrime(ActualSize) = 278
loadSize = ActualLoadFactor * ActualSize = 0.72 * 278 = 200
if (loadSize >= ActualSize){loadSize = ActualSize - 1}

When we resize an hash table what it actual do is, it will find the load size as per above and then create temporary array copy all the items to it and will resize the original array and will copy items from the original one.

The hash function used by the .net for is as follows

h1(key) = GetHash(key); // default implementation calls key.GetHashCode();
h2(key) = 1 + (((h1(key) >> 5) + 1) % (hashsize - 1));

The h1 can return any number but h2 function will make sure that the hash code returned will be between 1 and hashsize - 1. This will ensures that each bucket is visited at least once in hashsize probes. The table size is selected as prime number or at least a coprime, in order to avoid the tendency having the same divisors for a large hash code and the hash table size, which other wise produce collisions after the modulus operation.

The notable matter here is that size of the array is limited to the maximum value of the integer. Beyond that it will throw an exception. It’s always good to initialise the array with the enough initial capacity, as it save the resizing of the array.


  1. MBR IT/.NET 247 : System.Collections.Hashtable Class [Rotor]
  2. C#: Dictionary capacity in VB.Net 2.0
  3. Hash table - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  4. Talk:Hash table - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  5. When you create your own key object in a Hashtable, be careful - By Tony Sintes
  6. An Extensive Examination of Data Structures - By Scott Mitchell

Free/Open Source Applications ...

I thought I will list the applications i use at my office/home. All of them are either free or open source softwares. Certain of them are related to programming and the others are for general purpose.

I am not against Proprietary software, but people like me who can't afford the price of the Proprietary software can go for these applications. They are good and reliable. Hats off to those guys who spend their free time for making such wonderful applications and giving freely for us to use.

I am also including the extensions of my firefox with this. No descriptions are added go and explore yourself...


Google Desktop



Virtual Dimension

Expert Pdf Reader






7-zip File Manager




Regular Expression Workbench